Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) is the science concerned with understanding the rules of Islam with detailed evidence from the sources of Islamic law.
The sources of Islamic law are:
- The Qur’an
- Sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)
- Sayings and actions of the Twelve Imams
- The consensus of Shi’a scholars on a certain issue (Ijma) and intellect (Aql)
The rules of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) are divided into five sections:
- Obligatory, (Wajib) such as praying five times a day
- Prohibited, (Haram) such as murder
- Recommended, (Mustahab) such as charity
- Un-recommended, (Makruh) such as wearing black clothes all the time
- Permissible, (Mubah) such as walking, running, sleeping and most actions
These five rules apply to all imaginable human actions, and scholars are famed for saying that there is no human action that does not have a ruling in Fiqh. The laws from Fiqh concern subjects such as Taharah (ritual purification), Salat (ritual prayers), Saum (fasting) among many others from the books of worships and transactions.